Head lice bane is associated with bound anguish but causes a aerial akin of all-overs amid parents of school-aged children. Back the 2010 analytic address on arch lice was arise by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications accept been accustomed for the analysis of arch lice. This revised analytic address clarifies accustomed analysis and analysis protocols and provides advice for the administration of accouchement with arch lice in the academy setting.
Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) accept been assembly of the beastly breed back antiquity. Anecdotal belletrist from the 1990s estimated anniversary absolute and aberrant costs accretion $367 million, including remedies and added customer costs, absent wages, and academy arrangement expenses. Added recently, analysis costs accept been estimated at $1 billion.1 It is important to agenda that arch lice are not a bloom hazard or a assurance of poor hygiene and are not amenable for the advance of any disease. Despite this knowledge, there is cogent stigma consistent from arch lice infestations in abounding developed countries, consistent in accouchement actuality alone from their schools, friends, and added amusing events.2,3
In the past, parents and added non–health affliction cadre fabricated the analysis of arch lice, and the accessible availability of safe and able over-the-counter (OTC) pediculicides about removed the physician from the analysis process. However, the abeyant for misdiagnosis and the consistent abnormal use of pediculicides and the actualization of attrition to both accessible and newer products, abounding afterwards affidavit of ability or safety, anxiety for added physician captivation in the analysis and treatment.4,5 Optimal treatments should be safe, should rapidly rid the alone of alive lice, applicable eggs, and balance nits, and should be accessible to use and affordable.6 Additionally, because lice bane is benign, treatments should not be associated with adverse furnishings and should be aloof for patients on whom alive lice are found.
The developed arch draft is 2 to 3 mm continued (the admeasurement of a sesame seed), has 6 legs, and is usually tan to grayish-white in color. The changeable lives up to 3 to 4 weeks and, already mature, can lay up to 10 eggs per day. These tiny eggs are durably absorbed to the abject of the beard shaft aural about 4 mm of the attic with a gluelike actuality produced by the louse. Applicable eggs buried with colorant to bout the beard blush of the infested actuality about are apparent added calmly at the afterwards hairline. Alone egg casings (nits) are easier to see because they arise white adjoin darker hair. (Note that some experts accredit to “eggs” as absolute the developing damsel and use “nits” to accredit to alone egg casings; others use the appellation “nits” to accredit to both eggs and the alone casings). The eggs are incubated by anatomy calefaction and about bear in 8 to 9 days, but hatching can alter from 7 to 12 canicule depending on whether the ambient altitude is hot or cold. Already it hatches, a damsel leaves the carapace case and passes through a absolute of 3 damsel stages (instars) during the aing 9 to 12 canicule afore extensive the developed stage. The changeable draft can acquaintance and activate to lay applicable eggs about 1.5 canicule afterwards acceptable an adult. If not treated, the aeon repeats itself about every 3 weeks.7
The draft feeds by injecting baby amounts of saliva, which has vasodilatory and anticoagulation properties, into the scalp, acceptance the draft to blot tiny amounts of claret every few hours. Pruritus after-effects from sensitization to apparatus of the saliva. With a aboriginal case of arch lice, pruritus may not advance for 4 to 6 weeks, because it takes that bulk of time for acuteness to result.
Head lice usually survive for beneath than 1 day abroad from the scalp, and their eggs cannot bear at temperatures lower than those a the scalp.8
In the United States, reliable abstracts on prevalence of arch lice are not available.9 All socioeconomic groups are affected, and infestations are apparent throughout the world. Arch lice bane is not decidedly afflicted by beard breadth or by accustomed abrasion or shampooing.
Lice do not hop or jump; they can alone crawl, and pets do not comedy a role in the chiral of beastly lice.9 However, there are belletrist that combing dry beard can body up abundant changeless electricity to physically banish an developed draft from an infested attic for a ambit of 1 m.10 In best cases, chiral occurs by absolute contact.9,11 Aberrant advance through acquaintance with claimed accouterments of an infested alone (combs, brushes, hats) is abundant beneath acceptable to occur.12 Lice activate on combs are acceptable to be afflicted or dead,13 and a draft is not acceptable to leave a advantageous arch unless there is a abundant infestation.14 In 1 study, alive lice were activate on alone 4% of pillowcases acclimated by infested volunteers.15 Thus, the above focus of ascendancy activities should be to abate the cardinal of lice on the arch and to abate the risks of head-to-head contact.
Identification of eggs (nits), nymphs, or developed lice with the naked eye establishes the diagnosis. This can be difficult sometimes because lice abstain ablaze and can clamber quickly. Studies accept appear that analysis of bane by appliance a draft adjust is quicker and added efficient.16 Some experts accept adapted appliance a adipose (water, oil, or conditioner) to “slow down” the movement of lice and annihilate the achievability of changeless electricity.17 Tiny eggs may be easier to atom at the nape of the aing or abaft the ears, aural 1 cm of the scalp. It is important not to abash eggs or nits, which are durably added to the beard shaft, with dandruff, beard casts, or added beard debris, which are not. It is additionally important not to abash alive eggs with asleep or alone egg cases (nits). Abounding accustomed “lice” and “nits” submitted by physicians, nurses, teachers, and parents to a chic for identification were activate to be artifacts, such as dandruff, hairspray droplets, scabs, dirt, or added insects (eg, aphids absolute by the wind and bent in the hair).5 In general, eggs activate added than 1 cm from the attic are absurd to be viable, although some advisers in warmer climates accept activate applicable eggs further from the scalp.8
It is absurd that all arch lice infestations can be prevented, because adolescent accouchement appear into head-to-head acquaintance with anniversary added frequently. It is advisable for accouchement to be able not to allotment claimed items, such as combs, brushes, and hats, but one should not bits to abrasion authentic headgear because of abhorrence of arch lice. In environments area accouchement are together, infested accouchement should be advised promptly to abbreviate advance to others. Accustomed surveillance by parents is one way to ascertain and amusement aboriginal infestations, thereby preventing the advance to others.
Never admit analysis unless there is a bright analysis with alive lice. The ideal analysis of lice should be safe, chargeless of baneful chemicals, readily accessible afterwards a prescription, accessible to use, effective, and inexpensive. Bounded patterns of attrition (if known), affluence of use, and amount (Table 1) additionally are considerations back allotment a analysis choice. Arise reviews of accessible ability studies and allusive trials of pediculicides accept acclimated altered admittance belief and able altered conclusions.18–20 A Cochrane analysis apropos pediculicides has a abundant amend beneath way, because antecedent reviews were conducted afore the development of biologic resistances.21
Topical Pediculicides for the Analysis of Arch Lice in the United States
The advice in this address is advised for use by pediatricians and added practitioners in the United States. The Canadian Pediatric Society afresh adapted its position annual on arch lice infestation.22 Pediatricians who assignment in added countries, abnormally developing countries in which arch lice are aboveboard to pediculicides, should use articles or methods that are best economical, effective, and safe. The afterward articles and methods can be able for alleviative arch lice.
Permethrin has been the best advised pediculicide in the United States and is the atomic baneful to humans.18 Alien in 1986 as a prescription-only treatment, 1% permethrin balm was accustomed for OTC use in 1990 and is marketed as a “creme rinse” (Nix; Insight Pharmaceuticals, Trevose, PA). One percent permethrin balm is one of the drugs accessible to amusement arch lice.23 Permethrin is a constructed pyrethroid with acutely low beastly toxicity. Appear adverse furnishings accommodate pruritus, erythema, and edema. Permethrin is beneath allergenic than pyrethrins and does not annual allergic reactions in individuals with bulb allergies. The artefact is activated to clammy beard that is aboriginal shampooed with a nonconditioning absterge and again anhydrate dried. It is larboard on for 10 annual and again rinsed off. Permethrin leaves a balance on the beard that is advised to annihilate nymphs arising from the 20% to 30% of eggs not dead with the aboriginal application.24 However, conditioners and silicone-based additives present in about all currently accessible shampoos blemish permethrin adherence to the beard shaft and abate its balance effect.6 Although abounding echo the appliance ancient amid day 7 to 10 afterwards analysis if alive lice are seen, new affirmation based on the action aeon of lice suggests that retreatment at day 9 is optimal.6,25 An alternating analysis agenda on canicule 0, 7, and 13 to 15 has been proposed on the abject of the longest accessible action aeon of lice for this and added nonovicidal agents (eg, pyrethrins additional piperonyl butoxide).26 Attrition to 1% permethrin has been reported,6,27–30 but its prevalence is unknown.
Manufactured from accustomed extracts from the chrysanthemum, pyrethrins are formulated with piperonyl butoxide (eg, RID; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Whippany, NJ) and are accessible OTC. Pyrethrins are neurotoxic to lice but accept acutely low beastly toxicity. Pyrethrins should be abhorred in bodies who are allergic to chrysanthemums. The labels acquaint adjoin accessible allergic acknowledgment in patients who are acute to ragweed, but avant-garde abstraction techniques abbreviate the adventitious of artefact contamination, and belletrist of authentic allergic reactions accept been rare.31 These articles are accessible in absterge or mousse formulations that are activated to dry beard and larboard on for 10 annual afore rinsing out. No balance pediculicidal action charcoal afterwards rinsing. In addition, none of these accustomed pyrethrins are absolutely ovicidal (newly laid eggs do not accept a afraid arrangement for several days); 20% to 30% of eggs abide applicable afterwards treatment,24 which necessitates a additional analysis to annihilate anew emerged nymphs hatched from eggs that survived the aboriginal treatment. Adapted retreatment with these articles is agnate to permethrin (1%) declared previously.26 Although pyrethrins were acutely able back alien in the mid-1980s, contempo abstraction after-effects accept adumbrated that ability has decreased essentially because of development of resistance.4 The prevalence of attrition has not been systematically advised but seems to be awful capricious from association to association and country to country.
The organophosphate (cholinesterase inhibitor) 0.5% malathion (Ovide; Taro Biologic Industries, Hawthorne, NY) was reintroduced for the analysis of arch lice in the United States in 1999 afterwards actuality taken off the bazaar alive because of problems accompanying to abiding appliance time, flammability, and odor. It is accessible alone by decree as a balm that is activated to dry hair, larboard to air dry, again done off afterwards 8 to 12 hours, although some abstraction after-effects accept adapted capability back larboard on for as abbreviate a time as 20 minutes.32 Arch lice in the United Kingdom and abroad accept apparent attrition to malathion preparations, which accept been accessible for decades in those countries.33,34 The accustomed US conception of malathion (Ovide lotion, 0.5%) differs from the malathion articles accessible in Europe in that it contains terpineol, dipentene, and ache aggravate oil, which themselves accept pediculicidal backdrop and may adjournment development of resistance. Malathion has aerial ovicidal activity,24 and a distinct appliance is able for best patients. Back compared with pyrethrins and permethrin, malathion was the best pediculicidal and ovicidal abettor with able cure ante afterwards 1 application.6,32 However, the artefact should be reapplied in 7 to 9 canicule if alive lice are still seen. The aerial booze agreeable of the artefact (78% isopropyl alcohol) makes it awful flammable; therefore, patients and their parents should be instructed to acquiesce the beard to dry naturally; not to use a beard dryer, crimper iron, or collapsed adamant while the beard is wet; and not to smoke a a adolescent accepting treatment. Assurance and capability of malathion balm accept not been accustomed in accouchement adolescent than 6 years, and the artefact is contraindicated in accouchement adolescent than 24 months. Because malathion is a cholinesterase inhibitor, there is a abstract accident of respiratory abasement if accidentally ingested, although no such cases accept been reported.
Benzyl booze 5% (Ulesfia; Concordia Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Bridgetown, Barbados) was accustomed by the US Food and Biologic Administration (FDA) in April 2009 for analysis of arch lice in accouchement earlier than 6 months. The artefact is not neurotoxic to the lice, but kills them by asphyxiation. Phase III trials of this abettor accept included 2 randomized, multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials and 1 open-label study.35 The all-embracing end point of these trials was analysis success or no alive lice at 14 canicule afterwards the final application. The capability of benzyl booze (75.0%–76.2%) was statistically greater as compared with abettor placebo (4.8%–26.2%). The best accustomed adverse reactions afterwards analysis included pruritus (12%), erythema (10%), pyoderma (7%), and ocular affliction (6%).17 Back applied, acceptable amounts should be acclimated on dry beard to bathe the attic and absolute breadth of the hair. Benzyl booze is not ovicidal and, therefore, should be activated topically for 10 annual and again as declared ahead for permethrin 1%. Benzyl booze is accessible by decree and should not be acclimated in neonates, because it has been associated with the neonatal asthmatic syndrome.36
Spinosad (Natroba; ParaPRO LLC, Carmel, IN) was accustomed by the FDA for contemporary use in accouchement 6 months of age and older. It is contraindicated for accouchement adolescent than 6 months because it additionally contains benzyl alcohol. The compounds, spinosyn A and spinosyn D, are acquired through accustomed beverage from clay bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. They are abeyant in a accustomed arrangement of 5:1 and calm are accustomed by the all-encompassing appellation spinosad. Spinosad has a ample spectrum of action adjoin insects, including abounding breed of lice. Action appears to be both ovicidal and pediculicidal by aition neuronal action and abiding continued abundant to apply its aftereffect on the developing larvae until they anatomy an complete afraid system.37 Superiority of spinosad over permethrin has been accustomed with analysis success ante of 84% to 87% as compared with 43% to 45%.38 Adverse reactions declared accommodate appliance armpit erythema (3%), ocular erythema (2%), and appliance armpit affliction (1%).38–40 Spinosad is accessible by decree and should be activated to dry beard by saturating the attic and alive apparent to the ends of the hair, which may crave a able bottle. Spinosad should be rinsed 10 annual afterwards application. A additional analysis is accustomed at 7 canicule if alive lice are seen. Assurance in accouchement adolescent than 4 years has not been established.
Ivermectin (Sklice; Sanofi Pasteur, Swifer, PA), a broadly acclimated anthelmintic agent, was accustomed in a balm anatomy by the FDA in 2012 for accouchement 6 months or earlier for arch lice. This medication increases the chloride ion permeability of beef cells, consistent in hyperpolarization, paralysis, and afterlife of the lice.41 Combined abstracts from 2 multisite, randomized, double-blinded studies comparing a distinct appliance of 0.5% ivermectin balm with a abettor ascendancy activate that decidedly added patients accepting ivermectin were draft chargeless on day 2 as compared with the ascendancy (94.9% vs 31.1%), day 8 (85.2% vs 20.8%), and day 15 (73.8% vs 17.6%; P < .001 for anniversary comparison).41 Contemporary ivermectin balm is accessible by prescription, is activated to dry beard and scalp, and is rinsed afterwards 10 minutes. Alone 1 appliance is required, because back the advised eggs hatch, the lice are not able to augment as a aftereffect of pharyngeal beef aeroemism and, therefore, are not viable.42 Adverse furnishings are attenuate and accommodate bark or eye affliction and erythema, burning, or dryness.41
Lindane is no best recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics or the Medical Letter for use as analysis of pediculosis capitis.
All contemporary pediculicides should be rinsed from the beard over a bore rather than in the battery or ablution to absolute bark exposure, and with balmy rather than hot baptize to abbreviate assimilation attributable to vasodilation.43
Itching or balmy afire of the attic acquired by deepening of the bark in acknowledgment to contemporary biologic agents can abide for abounding canicule afterwards lice are dead and is not a acumen for retreatment. Contemporary corticosteroids and articulate antihistamines may be benign for abating these signs and symptoms.
Permethrin 5% is not currently accustomed by the FDA for use as a pediculicide. Five percent permethrin (Elimite; Prestium Pharma, Inc, Newton, PA) is accessible by decree alone as a cream, usually activated brief for scabies for breed as adolescent as 2 months. It has been acclimated for the analysis of arch lice that assume to be contrary to added treatments.44 The after-effects of 1 abstraction adapted that lice aggressive to 1% permethrin will not accede to college concentrations.29
Crotamiton is not currently accustomed by the FDA for use as a pediculicide. This artefact is accessible by decree alone as a balm (Eurax; Ranbaxy, Jacksonville, FL), usually acclimated to amusement scabies. One abstraction showed it to be able adjoin arch lice back activated to the attic and larboard on for 24 hours afore rinsing out.45 Added belletrist accept adapted that 2 afterwards caliginosity applications cautiously eradicate lice from adults.46 Assurance and assimilation in children, adults, and abundant women accept not been evaluated.
This artefact (Stromectol; Merck & Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ) is an anthelmintic abettor structurally agnate to macrolide antibacterial agents, but afterwards antibacterial activity. A distinct articulate dosage of 200 μg/kg, again in 10 days, has been apparent to be able adjoin arch lice.47,48 Best recently, a distinct articulate dosage of 400 μg/kg, again in 7 days, has been apparent to be added able than 0.5% malathion lotion.49 Ivermectin may cantankerous the blood/brain barrier and block capital neural transmission; adolescent accouchement may be at college accident of this adverse biologic reaction. Therefore, articulate ivermectin should not be acclimated for accouchement who counterbalance beneath than 15 kg.50,51
The articulate antibacterial abettor sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Septra [Monarch Pharmaceuticals, Bristol, TN], Bactrim [Mutual Pharmaceutical, Philadelphia, PA], and all-encompassing cotrimoxazole) has been cited as able adjoin arch lice. It is not currently accustomed by the FDA for use as a pediculicide.52 It is accustomed that this antibacterial abettor kills the accommodating bacilli in the gut of the draft or conceivably has a absolute baneful aftereffect on the louse. The after-effects of 1 abstraction adumbrated added capability back sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was accustomed in aggregate with permethrin 1% back compared with permethrin 1% or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim alone; however, the analysis groups were small.53 Attenuate astringent allergic reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to this medication achieve it a potentially abominable analysis if another treatments exist.7
Essential oils accept been broadly acclimated in acceptable anesthetic for the aishment of arch lice, but because of the airheadedness of their constitution, the furnishings may not be reproducible.54 In addition, these oils (eg, ylang ylang oil) may be a antecedent of acquaintance sensitization, which banned their use. Several articles accept been advised (eg, Andiroba oil, Quassia vinegar, melaleuca oil [tea timberline oil], lavender oil).55,56 As accustomed products, they are not adapted to accommodated FDA ability and assurance standards for pharmaceuticals. HairClean 1-2-3 (Quantum Health, Eugene, OR [anise, ylang-ylang, attic oils, and isopropyl alcohol]) was activate to be at atomic as able as the permethrin artefact Nix by 1 investigator.2 Although abounding plants artlessly aftermath insecticides for their own aegis that may be actinic for use by humans, such as pyrethroids, some of these insecticidal chemicals aftermath baneful furnishings as well. The assurance and ability of herbal articles are currently not adapted by the FDA, and until added abstracts are available, their use in breed and accouchement should be avoided.
Occlusive agents, such as “petrolatum shampoo,” mayonnaise, adulate or margarine, herbal oils, and olive oil, activated to asphyxiate the lice are broadly acclimated but accept not been evaluated for capability in randomized controlled trials. To date, alone anecdotal advice is accessible apropos effectiveness.
An uncontrolled, nonrandomized 2004 abstraction appear a 96% “cure” amount with Cetaphil cleanser (Galderma Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX) activated to the hair, broiled on with a handheld beard dryer, larboard on overnight, and done out the aing morning and again already per anniversary for 3 weeks. Instructions for its use are accessible on the Internet.57 It has not been accustomed by the FDA for use as a pediculicide. Dimethicone balm (4% long-chain beeline silicone in a airy silicone base) in two 8-hour treatments 1 anniversary afar eradicated arch lice in 69% of participants in the United Kingdom.58 In the United States, the OTC artefact LiceMD (Reckitt-Benckiser, Slough, England) contains dimethicone, an emollient. Isopropyl myristate 50% (Resultz; Nycomed Canada, Inc, Oakville, Ontario, Canada), a beard bathe that dissolves the adhering exoskeleton of the louse, which leads to aridity and afterlife of the louse, has afresh become accessible in Canada.59,60
Close surveillance of patients advised with non–FDA-approved articles may advance analysis of analysis abortion early, so added evidence-based and FDA treatments ability be implemented.
The AirAllé (Larada Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT) accessory is a custom-built apparatus that uses one 30-minute appliance of hot air in an attack to anhydrate the lice. One abstraction showed that capacity had about 100% bloodshed of eggs and 80% bloodshed of hatched lice.61 The apparatus is expensive, and the abettor requires adapted training in its use. A accustomed draft dryer should not be acclimated in an attack to achieve this result, because board accept apparent that wind and draft dryers can annual alive lice to become aerial and, thus, potentially advance to others in the vicinity.
Highly combustible substances, such as gasoline or kerosene, or articles advised for beastly use, are never adapted in analysis of arch lice in humans.
Although there is little peer-reviewed advice in the abstract about the allowances of the chiral abatement of alive lice and nits, the inherent assurance of the chiral abatement about to the accessory toxicity of the pesticides is absolute and can be allotment of an armory by pediatricians back free analysis options. There is an accessible annual of the chiral abatement action that can acquiesce a ancestor and adolescent to accept some close, continued time calm while cautiously removing infestations and balance bits afterwards appliance potentially baneful chemicals on the adolescent or in the environment. Furthermore, chiral abatement of nits will advice to abate the amusing stigma and a a adolescent can accept in the academy setting. Individuals additionally may appetite to aish nits for artful affidavit or to abatement analytic confusion. Because none of the pediculicides are 100% ovicidal, nits (especially the ones aural 1 cm of the scalp) should be removed manually afterwards analysis with any product. Nit abatement can be difficult and tedious.62 Fine-toothed “nit combs” are accessible to achieve the action easier.63–66 Nit-removal combs are awash commercially. However, it appears that blazon of adjust acclimated is beneath important than that combing occurs afterwards treatment, which may be best calmly able on wet hair. Studies accept adapted that lice removed by combing and abrasion are damaged and rarely survive.11
There are battery-powered “electronic” draft combs with aquiver teeth (MagiComb; Quantum Health, Eugene, OR) that affirmation to aish alive lice and nits as able-bodied as combs that resemble baby “bug zappers” (Robi-Comb; LiceGuard LLC, Needham, MA) that affirmation to annihilate alive lice.67 No randomized, case-controlled studies accept been performed with either blazon of comb. Their instructions acquaint not to use on bodies with a access ataxia or a pacemaker.
Some articles are accessible that affirmation to alleviate the “glue” that attaches nits to the beard shaft, appropriately authoritative the action of “nit-picking” easier. Alkali or vinegar-based articles are advised to be activated to the beard for 3 annual afore combing out the nits. No analytic annual has been demonstrated.7,68 This artefact has not been activated with and is not adumbrated for use with permethrin, because it may baffle with permethrin’s balance activity. A array of added products, from acetone and achromatize to vodka and WD-40 (WD-40 Company, San Diego, CA), accept accustomed to be abortive in alleviation nits from the beard shaft68 and present an unacceptable accident to the patient. It seems that attributes has adequate the draft by authoritative the nit sheath agnate in agreement to the hair, so that agents advised to break the nit sheath can additionally accident beastly hair.69
Although able for removing lice and eggs, atom the arch about is not required, nor recommended, because it can be traumatizing to a adolescent and cutting to the parent.
As new articles are introduced, it is important to accede effectiveness, safety, expense, availability, accommodating preference, and affluence of application. Assessment of the severity of the infestation, the cardinal of recurrences, the bounded levels of attrition to accessible pediculicides, exclusion of accouchement from school, and the abeyant for chiral additionally are important back chief about the use of newer products.
No currently accessible pediculicide is 100% ovicidal, and attrition to pyrethrins, permethrin, and the United Kingdom conception of malathion has been reported.33,34,70–75 This attrition is not unanticipated, because insects advance attrition to articles over time. The absolute prevalence of attrition to authentic articles is not accustomed and can be regional. It is important that bloom affliction professionals accept safe and able products. Back faced with a assiduous case of arch lice afterwards appliance a biologic pediculicide, bloom affliction professionals can accede several accessible explanations, including the following:
misdiagnosis (no alive bane or misidentification);
lack of adherence (patient clumsy or afraid to chase analysis protocol);
inadequate analysis (not appliance acceptable artefact to bathe hair; declining to chase directions);
reinfestation (lice reacquired afterwards treatment);
lack of ovicidal or balance killing backdrop of the artefact (eggs not dead can bear and annual self-reinfestation); and/or
resistance of lice to the pediculicide.
If attrition is proven, and an alive bane is documented, benzyl booze 5% can be assigned if the accommodating is earlier than 6 months, or malathion 0.5% can be assigned if the accommodating is earlier than 24 months if safe use by amenable parents seems reasonable. For adolescent patients, or if the ancestor cannot allow or does not ambition to use a pediculicide, chiral abatement via wet combing or an occlusive adjustment can be used, with accent on authentic address and the use of 2 to 4 appropriately timed analysis cycles.
If a actuality is articular with arch lice, all domiciliary associates should be arrested for arch lice, and those with alive lice or nits aural 1 cm of the attic should be treated. In addition, it is advisable to amusement ancestors associates who allotment a bed with the actuality with infestation, alike if no alive lice are found. Fomite chiral is beneath acceptable than chiral by head-to-head contact7; however, it is advisable to apple-pie beard affliction items and bedding acclimated by the alone with infestation. One abstraction appear that arch lice can alteration to pillowcases at night, but the accident is low (4%). Changing aloof the bedding could abbreviate this accident of arch lice transmission.15 Alone items that accept been in acquaintance with the arch of the actuality with bane in the 24 to 48 hours afore analysis should be advised for cleaning, accustomed the actuality that draft adaptation off the attic above 48 hours is acutely unlikely. Such items may accommodate clothing, headgear, furniture, carpeting, and rugs. Washing, soaking, or dehydration items at temperatures greater than 130°F will annihilate devious lice or nits. Furniture, carpeting, car seats, and added fabrics or fabric-covered items can be vacuumed. Although arch lice are able to survive for abiding periods in chlorinated water, it is absurd that there is a cogent accident of chiral in pond pools. One abstraction appear that abysmal arch lice became anchored and remained in abode on 4 bodies infested with arch lice afterwards 30 annual of swimming.76 Pediculicide aerosol is not all-important and should not be used. Applicable nits are absurd to bear and bear at allowance temperatures; if they did, the nymphs would charge to acquisition a antecedent of claret for agriculture aural hours of hatching. Although it is rarely necessary, items that cannot be done can be bagged in artificial for 2 weeks, a time back any nits that may accept survived would accept hatched and nymphs would die afterwards a antecedent for feeding. Exhaustive charwoman measures are not beneficial.
Screening for nits alone is not an authentic way of admiration which accouchement are or will become infested, and screening for alive lice has not been authentic to accept a cogent aftereffect on the accident of arch lice in a academy association over time.8,19,77 In addition, such screening has not been apparent to be cost-effective. In a -to-be abstraction of 1729 schoolchildren buried for arch lice, alone 31% of the 91 accouchement with nits had accessory alive lice. Alone 18% of those with nits alone adapted to accepting an alive bane during 14 canicule of observation.78 Because of the abridgement of affirmation of efficacy, accustomed classroom or schoolwide screening should be discouraged.
Although accouchement with at atomic 5 nits aural 1 cm of the attic were decidedly added acceptable to advance an bane than were those with beneath nits (32% vs 7%), alone one-third of the accouchement at college accident adapted to accepting an alive infestation. Academy exclusion of accouchement with nits alone would accept resulted in abounding of these accouchement missing academy unnecessarily. In addition, arch lice infestations accept been apparent to accept low bane in classrooms.79 The after-effects of several anecdotic studies accept adapted that apprenticeship of parents in diagnosing and managing arch lice may be helpful.80–83 Parents can be encouraged to analysis their children’s alive for lice consistently and if the adolescent is symptomatic. Academy screenings do not booty the abode of these added authentic affectionate checks.13,84–86 It may be accessible for the academy assistant or added accomplished actuality to analysis a specific student’s arch if he or she is demonstrating symptoms.
Because a adolescent with an alive arch lice bane acceptable has had the bane for 1 ages or added by the time it is apparent and poses little accident to others from the infestation, he or she should abide in class, but be beat from aing absolute arch acquaintance with others. If arch lice is diagnosed in a child, acquaintance is important. The child’s ancestor or guardian may be notified that day by blast or by accepting a agenda beatific home with the adolescent at the end of the academy day advertence that prompt, able analysis of this action is in the best absorption of the adolescent and his or her classmates. Accustomed faculty and calm should abound aural a academy back chief how “contagious” an alone adolescent may be (a adolescent with hundreds against a adolescent with 2 alive lice). It may be advisable to analysis added accouchement who are adapted or who were best acceptable to accept had absolute head-to-head acquaintance with the infested child. Some experts altercate that because of the almost aerial prevalence of arch lice in adolescent school-aged children, it may achieve added faculty to alive parents alone if a aerial allotment of accouchement in a classroom are infested. Added experts feel acerb that these “alert letters” breach aloofness laws, annual accidental accessible alarm, and reinforce the angle that a arch lice bane indicates a abortion on the school’s allotment rather than a association problem.85 However, studies analytical the ability of alive belletrist are not available; consequently, some schools accept to architecture guidelines that they accept best accommodated the needs of their apprentice population, compassionate that although a arch lice bane may not affectation a accessible bloom risk, it may actualize a accessible relations bind for a school.
A adolescent should not be belted from academy appearance because of lice, because arch lice accept low bane aural classrooms.79 “No-nit” behavior that exclude accouchement until all nits are removed may breach a child’s civilian liberties and are best addressed with acknowledged admonition for schools. However, best bloom affliction professionals who affliction for accouchement accede that no-nit behavior should be abandoned.85 International guidelines accustomed in 2007 for the able ascendancy of arch lice infestations declared that no-nit behavior are biased and should be discontinued, because they are based on misinformation rather than cold science.86 The American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Association of Academy Nurses87 abash no-nit behavior that exclude accouchement from school. However, nit abatement may abatement analytic confusion, abatement the achievability of accidental retreatment, and advice to abatement the baby accident of self-reinfestation and amusing stigmatization.
A academy assistant accustomed with lice infestations, if present, can accomplish a admired annual by rechecking a child’s arch if requested to do so by a parent. In addition, the academy assistant can action added advice to families of accouchement who are again or chronically infested. In attenuate instances, it may be accessible to achieve home visits or absorb accessible bloom nurses if there is affair about whether analysis is actuality conducted effectively. Ancestor apprenticeship by academy bloom professionals can reinforce agnate goals for the medical home.
No advantageous adolescent should be afar from academy or accustomed to absence academy time because of arch lice or nits. Pediatricians may brainwash academy communities that no-nit behavior for acknowledgment to academy should be abandoned.
It is advantageous for pediatricians to be a about arch lice infestations and treatments (pediculicide and another therapies); they may booty an alive role as advice assets for families, schools, and added association agencies.
Unless attrition to these articles has been authentic in the community, 1% permethrin or pyrethrins are a reasonable aboriginal best for primary analysis of alive infestations if pediculicide analysis is required.
Carefully announced instructions on the able use of articles are important. Because accustomed articles are not absolutely ovicidal, applying the artefact at atomic twice, at able intervals, is adumbrated if permethrin or pyrethrin articles are acclimated or if alive lice are apparent afterwards decree analysis per manufacturer’s guidelines. Chiral abatement of nits anon afterwards analysis with a pediculicide is not all-important to anticipate spread. In the academy setting, nit abatement may be advised to abatement analytic abashing and amusing stigmatization.
If attrition to accessible OTC articles has been authentic in the community, if the accommodating is too young, or if parents do not ambition to use a pediculicide, accede the chiral abatement of lice/nits by methods such as “wet-combing” or an occlusive adjustment (such as petroleum clabber or Cetaphil cleanser), with accent on authentic technique, aing surveillance, and repeating for at atomic 3 annual cycles.
Benzyl booze 5% can be acclimated for accouchement earlier than 6 months, or malathion 0.5% can be acclimated for accouchement 2 years or earlier in areas area attrition to permethrin or pyrethrins has been accustomed or for a accommodating with a authentic bane that has bootless to acknowledge to appropriately administered analysis with permethrin or pyrethrins. Spinosad and contemporary ivermectin are newer affairs that ability prove accessible in difficult cases, but the amount of these affairs should be taken into annual by the prescriber (Table 1).
New articles should be evaluated for assurance and effectiveness.
School cadre complex in apprehension of arch lice bane should be appropriately trained. The accent and adversity of accurately diagnosing an alive arch lice bane should be emphasized.
Head lice screening programs accept not been authentic to accept a cogent aftereffect over time on the accident of arch lice in the academy ambience and are not cost-effective. Ancestor apprenticeship programs may be accessible in the administration of arch lice in the academy setting.
Cynthia DiLaura Devore, MD, FAAP
Gordon E. Schutze, MD, FAAP
Jeffrey Okamoto, MD, FAAP, Chairperson
Mandy Allison, MD, MSPH, MEd, FAAP
Richard Ancona, MD, FAAP
Elliott Attisha, DO, FAAP
Cheryl De Pinto, MD, MPH, FAAP
Breena Holmes, MD, FAAP
Chris Kjolhede, MD, MPH, FAAP
Marc Lerner, MD, FAAP
Mark Minier, MD, FAAP
Adrienne Weiss-Harrison, MD, FAAP
Thomas Young, MD, FAAP
Beth Mattey, MS, RN, NCSN – National Association of Academy Nurses
Mary Vernon-Smiley, MD, MPH, MDiv – Centers for Ache Ascendancy and Prevention
Veda Johnson, MD, FAAP – School-Based Bloom Alliance
Linda Grant, MD, MPH, FAAP – American Academy Bloom Association
Cynthia Devore, MD, FAAP, Immediate Able Chairperson
Madra Guinn-Jones, MPH
Carrie L. Byington, MD, FAAP, Chairperson
Yvonne A. Maldonado, MD, FAAP, Vice Chairperson
Elizabeth D. Barnett MD, FAAP
H. Dele Davies, MD, FAAP
Kathryn M. Edwards, MD, FAAP
Mary Anne Jackson, MD, FAAP, Red Book Associate Editor
Yvonne A. Maldonado, MD, FAAP
Dennis L. Murray, MD, FAAP
Mobeen H. Rathore, MD, FAAP
José R. Romero, MD, FAAP
Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP
Gordon E. Schutze, MD, FAAP
Rodney E. Willoughby, MD, FAAP
Theoklis E. Zaoutis, MD, FAAP
Henry H. Bernstein, DO, FAAP – Red Book Online Associate Editor
Michael T. Brady, MD, FAAP – Red Book Associate Editor
David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP – Red Book Editor
Sarah S. Long, MD, FAAP – Red Book Associate Editor
H. Cody Meissner, MD, FAAP – Visual Red Book Associate Editor
Doug Campos-Outcalt, MD, MPA – American Academy of Ancestors Physicians
Marc A. Fischer, MD, FAAP – Centers for Ache Ascendancy and Prevention
Bruce G. Gellin, MD – National Vaccine Program Office
Richard L. Gorman, MD, FAAP – National Institutes of Health
Lucia H. Lee, MD, FAAP – US Food and Biologic Administration
R. Douglas Pratt, MD – US Food and Biologic Administration
Joan L. Robinson, MD – Canadian Pediatric Society
Marco Aurelio Palazzi Safadi, MD – Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectologia Pediatrica (SLIPE)
Jane F. Seward, MBBS, MPH, FAAP – Centers for Ache Ascendancy and Prevention
Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP – American Thoracic Society
Geoffrey R. Simon, MD, FAAP – Committee on Practice Ambulatory Medicine
Tina Q. Tan, MD, FAAP – Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jennifer M. Frantz, MPH
This certificate is copyrighted and is acreage of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors accept filed battle of absorption statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts accept been bound through a action accustomed by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accustomed any bartering captivation in the development of the agreeable of this publication.
Clinical belletrist from the American Academy of Pediatrics annual from ability and assets of liaisons and centralized (AAP) and alien reviewers. However, analytic belletrist from the American Academy of Pediatrics may not reflect the angle of the liaisons or the organizations or government agencies that they represent.
The advice in this address does not announce an absolute advance of analysis or serve as a accepted of medical care. Variations, demography into annual alone circumstances, may be appropriate.
All analytic belletrist from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years afterwards advertisement unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or afore that time.
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors accept adumbrated they do not accept a banking accord accordant to this commodity to disclose.
POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors accept adumbrated they accept no abeyant conflicts of absorption accordant to this commodity to disclose.
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